Presently, a wide variety of CT definitions are adopted. In its broadest terms, CT is regarded as a thinking process entailed in designing solutions that can be executed by a computer, a human, or a combination of both. CT is associated both with core concepts, like abstraction, algorithmic thinking, automation, decomposition and generalization, and also with attitudes, skills and practices, e.g. creating computational artefacts, testing and debugging, collaboration, creativity and problem solving. As a transversal skill applicable in multiple education disciplines, it has a crucial role to play in compulsory education. Critically, CT is also acknowledged as a foundational competence individuals need to successfully deal with new societal challenges.
Indeed, CT is Strategic Priority 2 in the European Commission´s recently published “Digital Education Action Plan (2021-2027) - Resetting education and training for the digital age” (known as DEAP for short). This makes the CompuThink II study central to EC strategy planning for improving the provision of digital skills and competences, including via high-quality computing/computer science education.